International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry

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2023 | October-December | Volume 13 | Issue 4

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Sunil Kumar Mishra, Ramesh Chowdhary

Natural Tooth Wear Opposing to Different Prosthetic Crown Materials

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:185 - 186]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1431  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Ahmed N Elsherbini

Mini-poll Coping as an Alternative Attachment in Tooth-supported Overdenture Prosthesis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:187 - 190]

Keywords: Dislodging resistance, Mini-poll coping, Overdenture, Patient satisfaction, Telescopic crown

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1425  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: Evaluation of the resistance to dislodging resistance in the conventional overdenture, mini-poll coping, and telescopic crown. Materials and methods: A sample size of 45 participants (15 in each group) was determined. Partially edentulous patients with only the two lower canines present were selected. After the fabrication of the three prostheses, using a force gauge, a dislodging pushing force was applied to the three groups at the labial frenal notches. Measurements were taken at insertion, after 1 and 3 months. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey was calculated for the groups. Results: The mean values for the conventional overdenture, mini-poll, and telescopic at insertion were 2.45 ± 0.095, 6.47 ± 0.101, and 6.66 ± 0.239 newton (N), respectively. The mean values for the conventional overdenture, mini-poll, and telescopic after 1 month were 3.58 ± 0.13, 8.5 ± 0.5, and 7.80 ± 0.435 N, respectively. The mean values for the conventional overdenture, mini-poll, and telescopic after 3 months were 3.7 ± 0.147, 8.56 ± 0.598, and 8.56 ± 0.452 N, respectively. Conclusion: The mini-poll coping and telescopic crown recorded the highest retentive values, however, the mini-poll had the advantage of much lower cost when compared with the telescopic crown.



Lakshmi C Padarthi, Lavanya Anumula, Suneel K Chinni, Swapna Sannapureddy, Kiranmayi Govula, Sindhu Ramesh

Evaluation of Composite Restoration in Posterior Teeth with Proanthocyanidin Pretreatment Liner Using Fédération Dentaire Internationale Criteria: A Split-mouth Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:191 - 200]

Keywords: Adhesives, Antioxidants, Collagen, Esthetics proteases

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1424  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: A split-mouth randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the impact of a 2% proanthocyanidin (PAC) pretreatment liner on the clinical durability of posterior composite restorations. Materials and methods: A parallel double-blinded split-mouth RCT adhering to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines was conducted. A 2% PAC solution was prepared for pretreatment. A total of 44 participants meeting inclusion criteria received composite restorations, each receiving one restoration with PAC liner and one without (test and control). Clinical evaluations include esthetic, functional, and biological aspects over a 6-month and 1-year follow-up period using Fédération Dentaire Internationale (FDI) criteria. Fisher exact test was employed to analyze the differences in ratings between the two groups. Results: No significant differences were observed between the two groups (p < 0.05). Staining was minimal and comparable between the two groups; neither group experienced postoperative sensitivity or recurrent caries. Both groups exhibited excellent outcomes in surface luster, color match, translucency, and marginal adaptation, with no significant differences between groups. Staining, postoperative sensitivity, and recurrent caries were minimal and comparable. General and oral health remained favorable in both groups during follow-up. Conclusion: Around 2% PAC pretreatment enhances the clinical durability of posterior composite restorations, leading to excellent esthetic, functional, and biological outcomes. PAC represents a promising dentin biomodification agent for improving restoration performance and longevity.



Subhabrata Maiti, Senthamil Sindhu, Deepak Nallaswamy

Accuracy and Efficiency of Two Commercially Available Intraoral Scanners Under Different Room Lighting Conditions: A Crossover Clinical Trial

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:201 - 209]

Keywords: Accuracy, Intraoral scanners, Light conditions, Precision, Trueness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1426  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the two intraoral scanners (IOSs) under the influence of three different room light conditions. Materials and methods: A crossover clinical trial was conducted with a total of 72 experimental scan samples obtained from six subjects under a three-light source (white light, chair light, and no light). Full arch scans were made in the maxillary and mandibular arches with Trios and Medit IOSs. The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the corresponding subject was made as the reference scan. The results were analyzed with the three-dimensional (3D) analyzing software Geomagic. The accuracy is measured in terms of precision trueness and efficiency in terms of the number of images and time taken by the IOSs under the influence of three different room light conditions. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent sample t-test were carried out to find the significance of the results. Result: A significant difference in trueness was observed between the two IOSs under the influence of light conditions (p < 0.05). Lesser deviations were observed in the Medit group with the least deviations found in chair light (0.23 ± 0.03) and white light (0.23 ± 0.07). The accuracy of the IOSs when compared within the light conditions (precision) showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05), however, least deviations were observed for Medit (0.23 ± 0.07) and Trios (0.36 ± 0.08) in chair light condition in mandibular arch and Medit (0.38 ± 0.07) and Trios (0.55 ± 0.14) in no light condition in the maxillary arch. Conclusion: The difference between the IOSs was present under different light sources in terms of trueness and efficacy but not in precision.



Neha Parmar, Sareen Duseja

Dimensional Stability of Maxillofacial Prosthetic Room Temperature Vulcanized Silicones after Various Disinfection Protocols: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:210 - 215]

Keywords: Alcohol disinfectant, Coronavirus disease of 2019, Dimensional stability, Herbal disinfectant, Maxillofacial prosthesis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1428  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To determine the influence on the dimensional stability of silicone specimens treated with water, soap water, alcohol, and herbal disinfectant for 45 days. Materials and methods: A total of 80 test specimens were prepared from room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicones using a metal die according to the American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19 and divided into four groups (n = 20). Each group's samples were treated with a different disinfectant solution (normal water, soap water, herbal disinfectant, and alcohol disinfectant) twice a day for 45 days. Dimensional stability was analyzed by stereomicroscope in intervals of every 15 days. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Initially, alcohol disinfectant causes more shrinkage of silicone, while herbal disinfectant results in less shrinkage of silicone prosthesis. Dimensional stability measurements of samples treated with normal water (24.91, 24.84, and 24.72 mm), soap water (24.94, 24.91, and 24.73 mm), herbal-based disinfectant (24.9, 24.87, and 24.78 mm), and alcohol disinfectant (24.96, 24.93, and 24.75 mm) at 15, 30, and 45 days, respectively revealed significant shrinkage of RTV silicones over time in each group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Herbal disinfectant can be a favorable disinfectant for maintaining dimensional stability of RTV silicone in comparison to soap water as well as alcohol-based disinfectant.



Khalid Dhafer Al Hendi

Comparative Evaluation of Fitness and Compressive Strength of Temporary Crowns Designed from 3Shape and Exocad Software: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:216 - 221]

Keywords: 3Shape dental system software, Compressive strength, Exocad software, Marginal fit, Temporary crown

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1433  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To evaluate the fitness and compressive strength of temporary crowns designed in 3Shape and Exocad software. Materials and methods: A sound premolar was scanned by 3Shape intraoral scanner followed by standard tooth preparation, scanning, and matching to obtain the exact crown size of the unprepared premolar. A total of 100 crowns were designed using 3Shape Dental System (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark; n = 50) and Exocad (GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany; n = 50) and milled using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ViTA computer-aided design (CAD)—temp blocks. The fitness of temporary crown was evaluated by scanning and analyzing the thickness of silicone replica in Geomagic surface matching software. The compressive strength was evaluated by observing the first crack and ultimate failure of the crown using a universal testing machine. The data was recorded and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Independent t-tests were used to compare the studied variables. Results: The results showed a lower but insignificant discrepancy at margins (p = 0.072) in Exocad software (70.23 ± 18.19 µm) compared to 3Shape software (72.21 ± 17.63 µm). The internal fit at different positions (chamfer, axial, angle, and occlusal) was comparatively better with Exocad software than with 3Shape software. Significant difference (p = 0.001) in compressive force required to make the first crack was found in 3Shape-designed crowns (1124.65 ± 170.54 N) and in Exocad-designed crowns 1004.03 ± 146.98 N). Significant difference (p = 0.001) was found in ultimate compressive strength with 3Shape (1731.31 ± 81.43 N) and Exocad (1522.6 ± 142.53 N) prepared crowns. Conclusion: Marginal fit and internal fit of crowns from both softwares are comparable. Compressive strength of crowns prepared from 3Shape is better than that of Exocad software.



Sanjay Lagdive, Rupal J Shah, Nilesh B Gadiya, Nilesh Patel, Ami Panchal, Real P Brahmbhatt

Effect of Flap and Flapless Implant Surgical Techniques on Tissues around Dental Implants: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:222 - 227]

Keywords: Dental implant, Flapped implant surgical placement, Flapless implant surgical placement, Marginal bone loss, Modified plaque index

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1427  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To compare and evaluate the effect of flap and flapless implant placement on peri-implant hard and soft tissue health. Materials and methods: A total of 40 implant sites in the mandibular molar region in 40 patients were chosen, with 20 for the conventional flap procedure and 20 for the flapless procedure. The parameters selected were radiographic marginal bone loss, implant mobility, modified plaque index, modified bleeding index (MBI), and probing depth measurement at the time of loading (baseline), 3, 6, and 12 months after loading. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were done to evaluate significant differences at different time intervals. Results: The flapped technique showed higher mesial and distal crestal bone loss at 3, 6, and 12 months (p = 0.001). The bleeding index was also higher in flapped implants at 3, 6, and 12 months (p = 0.002). Probing depth was significant for flapped implants on all sides at different intervals (p-values ranging from 0.001 to 0.024). The plaque index was not significant. The mobility index was 0 ± 0 for both techniques after 12 months, with significant p-values of 0.025 and 0.001 for flapless and flapped techniques, respectively. Conclusion: Marginal bone loss is lower in flapless implant surgical placement. No clinically significant difference was observed between flap and flapless surgery in terms of implant mobility and plaque index. The probing depth and bleeding index around implants placed using the flap technique showed significant changes compared to the flapless technique.



Pooja M Raikar, Sapna Chengappa Kambiranda, Nitesh Shetty

Evaluation of the Strain under Compression and Surface Roughness of Tissue Conditioners Incorporated with Silver Nano Particles and Chlorhexidine: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:228 - 234]

Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Silver nanoparticles, Strain under compression, Surface roughness, Tissue conditioner

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1429  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To evaluate and compare the strain under compression and surface roughness of tissue conditioner after incorporation of silver nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. Materials and methods: A total of 321 specimens were prepared following American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19 (n = 21 disk-shaped specimens; n = 300 cylindrical specimens). The specimens were divided into three groups: group I as control (tissue conditioner without any additives), group II (tissue conditioner with 0.1% silver nanoparticles), and group III (tissue conditioner with 2% chlorhexidine). Cylindrical specimens (n = 100 per group) were used for strain under compression, and disk-shaped specimens (n = 7 per group) for surface roughness. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal–Wallis tests along with Dunn's post hoc test. Results: The mean strain percent of the silver nanoparticles incorporated group was 0.45, the control group was 0.35, and the chlorhexidine-incorporated group was 0.46. The strain was less in the control group compared to the other two groups, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.016). The mean strain percent of all three groups increased linearly as the load increased. The difference in the distribution of strain percent of the three-tissue conditioner group with an increase in load was significant in each group (p < 0.001). The mean surface roughness of the silver nanoparticles incorporated group was 4.12 μm, followed by the chlorhexidine incorporated group (4.47 μm) and control group (4.58 μm). There was no significant difference in the surface roughness between the three tissue conditioner groups (p = 0953). Conclusion: The incorporation of 0.1% silver nanoparticles into tissue conditioner showed decreased strain under compression and less surface roughness when compared with the control group. The incorporation of 2% chlorhexidine into tissue conditioner showed increased strain under compression and decreased surface roughness when compared with the control group. In patients with denture stomatitis, tissue conditioner comprising 0.1% silver nanoparticles can be used as a beneficial and promising antimicrobial agent without altering the mechanical and physical properties.



Neha Gaur

An In Vitro Study to Evaluate Retention of Ball and Locator Attachments in Straight and Angulated Implant-supported Overdenture

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:235 - 241]

Keywords: Ball attachment, Implant angulation, Implant overdenture, Locator attachment, Retention force

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1435  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To compare retention and retention loss exhibited by a pair of ball or locator attachments individually or in combination in straight and angulated two implant-retained overdentures (IRODs) over a period equivalent to 5 years of denture insertion and removal. Materials and methods: The bilateral canine region of the edentulous mandibular model was used to receive two implants at 0 and 15°. Overdenture bases were retained by ball or locator attachments individually or in combination and grouped as group BB (retained by a pair of ball attachments); group LL (retained by a pair of locator attachments); group BL (retained by ball attachment on straight and locator attachment on 15° angulated implant); and group LB (retained by locator attachment on straight and ball attachment on 15° angulated implant). Respective housings were picked up in overdenture matrices (seven per group). After cyclic loading with 70 N of load for 100,000 cycles, retention values were recorded at various intervals of time during 7,200 insertion-removal cycles. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variances (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: A significant difference was found for intergroup comparison of mean retention. Group LB maintained the highest initial and final retentive force, that is, 182.44 ± 63.59 N and 108.64 ± 52.03 N, respectively. Group LB exhibited the highest mean loss of retention of 42.42 ± 9.88%, followed by BB (41.38 ± 4.25%), BL (35.57 ± 5.78%), and lastly LL (24.65 ± 6.60%). There was a significant decrease in mean retention for all the groups during the 1st year and subsequently from 2 to 5 years except LL. Conclusion: There exists a significant loss in mean retention in all combinations of ball and locator attachments at straight and angulated implants. The combination of a locator at 0° and ball attachment at 15° exhibited the highest retention, in spite of the maximum percentage loss of retention. Therefore, the combination of a locator on a straight and ball attachment on an angulated implant seems suitable and can ensure adequate retention during long-term clinical use.



Kimia Baghaei, Amirhossein Fathi, Sara Hashemi, Kiumars Tavakolitafti, Ramin Mosharraf, Seyedeh Farimah Fatemi

To Splint or Not to Splint Tooth and Adjacent Dental Implants: An Overview of Reviews

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:242 - 248]

Keywords: Adjacent tooth, Dental implants, Nonsplinted restorations, Splinted restorations, Survival rate

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1430  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: This study has done a nonbiased and comprehensive assessment of the survival rate of splinted and nonsplinted implant restoration from published meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Materials and methods: All the included studies were assessed based on the risk of bias in systematic reviews (ROBIS) tool. Furthermore, the corrected covered area (CCA) was calculated using a citation matrix for meta-analyses. Studies with low overlap were only included in the final analysis. In the case of a high degree of overlap, the newest higher-quality study was chosen. The “Metaumbrella” package and R software were used to perform the statistical analysis. Result: The original randomized controlled trials (RCTs) had an overall CCA of 5%, indicating slight overlap. For quantitative synthesis, three studies with meta-analyses were included, which were of high quality and showed low overlap. The quantitative analysis revealed that splinted restorations have a higher implant survival rate. The ratio of success in splinted implants to nonsplinted implants was 1.13 (p-value = 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this umbrella review, splint restorations have a higher survival rate. This overview review suggests that splinting implants to adjacent tooth is an affordable and effective solution for treating partially edentulous patients.



Deepa Balu, Ahila S Chidambaranathan, Muthukumar Balasubramanium

Analysis of Prevalence of Lateral Throat Form in Completely Edentulous Patients: A Systematic Review

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:249 - 253]

Keywords: Completely edentulous, Denture stability, Mandibular denture, Retention, Lateral throat form

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1432  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: Systematic analysis of the prevalence of lateral throat forms in completely edentulous patients in different populations. Materials and methods: Electronic databases were searched using the key terms retention and complete denture in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, and Google Scholar from January 1990 to December 2022. A hand search of other relevant journals and references was done to find more related articles. All included studies were evaluated for the prevalence of lateral throat form type in patients wearing complete dentures. Result: A total of 284 articles were evaluated for eligibility based on the inclusion criteria of Neil's classification of lateral throat form. Five articles were chosen for qualitative analysis. Five included studies showed the different types of lateral throat forms and various lengths of the distolingual flange in a mandibular denture. Class I lateral throat form was the most prevalent type among the completely edentulous patients, followed by class II and class III. Depth and length of the lateral throat form were maximum in class I, followed by class II and class III cases. Conclusion: Class I lateral throat form was the most prevalent type among the completely edentulous patients, followed by classes II and III. Knowledge of the prevalence of lateral throat form in each population can help the dentist to record the distolingual area properly during the impression-making procedure.


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