International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry

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2022 | July-September | Volume 12 | Issue 3

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Sunil Kumar Mishra, Ramesh Chowdhary

Current Evidence on the CAD-CAM-fabricated Glass Fiber Post

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:103 - 103]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1377  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Pravinkumar Patil

Implant Body Fracture and Abutment Screw Loosening: Is It a Chicken and Egg Situation?

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:104 - 105]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1389  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Roseline D Meshramkar, Lekha K Pillai, Ramesh K Nadiger

Evaluation of Osteoblastic Activity of Polyether Ether Ketone Modified by Ultraviolet Radiation: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:106 - 109]

Keywords: Dental implant, Osseointegration, Osteoblastic activity, Polyether ether ketone, Surface treatment, Ultraviolet radiation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1371  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the osteoblastic activity of polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Materials and methods: Thirty samples of PEEK discs were made. The samples were grouped as group I (n = 15) PEEK with no treatment and group II (n = 15) PEEK modified by UV radiation. The experimental group was seeded with human osteoblastic sarcoma cells. The samples were incubated for 48 hours at 37 ± 1°C in a humid atmosphere at 5%. After 48 hours, 2.5% glutaraldehyde was applied to fix the seeded cells to the coverslips. The discs were seen under scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the colony formation and adhesion of osteoblastic cells on the PEEK discs. The observation made was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Noticeable adhesion of osteoblast was found in the UV-treated PEEK samples when compared to PEEK samples with no treatment. The cells in nontreated PEEK samples were less spread and showed few colonies. PEEK modified by UV radiation showed more noticeable osteoblast cells scattered all around the sample. The adhesion of the cells was better as compared to group I. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant when analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Conclusion: PEEK modified with UV radiation showed more noticeable osteoblast cells scattered all around the sample. The adhesion of the cells in UV-treated samples was better as compared to no treatment.



Keerthi Vasan, R Balasubramanian, Seyed A Ali, CJ Venkatakrishnan

Effect on the Compressive and Diametral Tensile Strength of Type II GIC reinforced with Nanohydroxyapatite Derived from “Anadara granosa”: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:110 - 117]

Keywords: Anadara granosa, Compressive strength, Diametral tensile strength, Glass ionomer cement, Microwave irradiation synthesis, Nanohydroxyapatite

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1375  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is a commonly used restorative material. However, it lacks sufficient strength and wear resistance to be used as a posterior restorative material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compressive and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of conventional restorative GIC reinforced with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP) derived from the cockle shell (Anadara granosa). Materials and methods: A total of 72 specimens were prepared and divided into one control Group (Group I, n = 12 conventional restorative GIC) and five test Groups of specimens of GIC mixed with nHAP (n = 12 specimens each) in the following proportions (Group II-1%; Group III-2%; Group IV-4%; Group V-5%; Group VI-6%). Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mold with specifications of 6 mm height and 4 mm diameter was used to make samples for compressive strength (CS) testing. A mold dimension of 2 mm thick and 4 mm diameter was used for fabricating samples for DTS. The specimens were kept in simulated saliva for 7 and 15 days before testing. Compressive and DTS was evaluated under a universal testing machine. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to calculate inferential statistics, followed by the post hoc Nemenyi test. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze samples from 7 to 15 days. Results: The setting time increased steadily with an increase in nHA concentration. The highest mean setting time value was found in Group VI (51.66 ± 6.83 minute), followed by Group V (23.6 ± 7.12 minute), Group IV (13.43 ± 0.49 minute), Group III (9 ± 0.89 minute), and Group II (7.5 ± 0.65 minute), respectively and the difference is statistically significant (0.001). CS decreased with an increase in the concentration of Anadara granosa-derived nHAP content in the composition of GIC. The highest mean value is seen in Group III (40.66 ± 7.28 MPa), followed by Group II (39.6 ± 2.06 MPa), Group IV (33.43 ± 6.26 MPa), Group V (19.33 ± 7.60 MPa), and Group VI (14.66 ± 6.47 MPa) and the difference is statistically significant (0.001). DTS initially decreased with 1 and 2% addition of nHAP, but later increased at 6%. The highest mean value is seen in Group III (55 ± 4.97 MPa), followed by Group II (44.33 ± 10.44 MPa), Group IV (38.43 ± 0.89 MPa), Group VI (31.3 ± 7.17 MPa), and Group V (19.66 ± 5.46 MPa) and the difference is statistically significant (0.001). Conclusion: The CS of nHAP-incorporated samples decreases steadily with an increase in the concentration of reinforcement additive to conventional GIC. Diametral tensile strength initially decreased with 1 and 2% addition of nHAP but later increased to 6%. The samples immersed in saliva for 15 days showed more increase in CS and DTS.



Jesseca John, VP Prabath Singh

Comparative Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of MTA and Biodentine to Different Permanent Restorative Materials: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:118 - 124]

Keywords: Amalgomer, Biodentine, Mineral trioxide aggregate, Nanocomposite, Resin-modified glass ionomer cements, Shear bond strength

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1379  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and, failure modes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and biodentine to nanocomposite, ceramic-reinforced glass ionomer (Amalgomer CR), and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGIC). Materials and methods: Acrylic blocks were employed as a platform to place the cements and restorative materials. In the present study, 30 acrylic blocks were prepared and divided into two groups (n = 15 each), MTA and biodentine. The acrylic blocks were allocated into three subgroups (n = 5 each) based on the restorative material used (nanocomposite, Amalgomer CR, and RMGIC). The specimens were mounted in the universal testing machine to evaluate the SBS. Failure modes of each group were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Kruskal–Wallis test was done to find the statistical significance of SBS among the three different materials in each group. In the case of statistical significance, the Dunn Bonferroni multiple comparison test was used to identify the significant pair of groups. Results: In the MTA group, MTA + nanocomposite showed the highest bond strength (7.77 MPa) and in the biodentine group, biodentine + nanocomposite showed the highest bond strength (9 MPa). The multiple comparison test showed a significant statistical difference in the SBS in the MTA group (p = 0.005). SBS among the three different materials with biodentine showed statistical insignificance (p = 0.153). Conclusion: The bonding of MTA and biodentine to the overlying restoration is affected by choice of the restorative material. In a clinical scenario, nanocomposite should be the preferred restorative material with both MTA and biodentine.



Anjali Sharma, Pankaj Mishra, Saket Jain, Santosh Kumar Singh, Sushil Kishnani

Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Surface Pretreatments on Bond Strengths of Thermocycled Composite and Amalgam Rerestored with Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:125 - 132]

Keywords: Air abrasion, Amalgam, Composite, Metal bond, Repair, Silane coupling agent

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1380  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface pretreatment methods on bond strengths of aged composite and aged amalgam rerestored with composite resin. Materials and methods: A total of 72 specimens measuring 5 × 5 × 3 mm were fabricated. A total of 36 composite resin specimens and 36 amalgam specimens were fabricated using customized metallic molds. All the samples were artificially aged by thermocycling (5,000 cycles, 5°–55°C) and then stored in artificial saliva for 1 month. The specimens were divided into six groups (each having 12 specimens) based on different surface treatments (group I—aged composite treated with diamond bur; group II—aged composite treated with diamond bur and silane coupling agent; group III—aged composite treated with air abrasion and silane coupling agent; group IV—aged amalgam treated with diamond bur; group V—aged amalgam treated with diamond bur, metal bond, and silane coupling agent; and group VI—aged amalgam treated with air abrasion metal bond and silane coupling agent). All specimens were then rerestored with composite restoration and again kept for thermocycling. The specimen was tested under universal testing machine for shear bond strength. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis. Results: Aged composite treated with air abrasion and silane coupling agent (group III) exhibited the maximum bond strength with a mean of 52.3385 ± 10.656 MPa, followed by aged composite treated with diamond bur and silane coupling agent (group II) with a mean of 50.653 ± 13.182 MPa. The least strength was displayed in aged amalgam treated with diamond bur (group IV) with a mean of 26.3 ± 9.421. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) among the groups. Conclusion: Aged composite treated with air abrasion and silane coupling agents increases the bond strength of the repaired composite efficiently. Mechanical surface treatment of aged amalgam along with silane coupling agent and metal bond in cases amalgam repair with composite also improves the bond strength and can be a better alternative in such cases.



Shefali Dogra, Pankaj Dhawan, Harsimran Kaur, Shivam S Tomar, Anjana Goyal

Comparative Analysis of Levels of Salivary Lysozyme before and after Removable Prosthodontic Treatment among Partially Edentulous Patients: An Observational Study

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:133 - 137]

Keywords: Partially edentulous, Periodontitis, Salivary biomarkers, Salivary lysozyme

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1369  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: Salivary biomarkers can present variation in the onset, progression, or even regression of a particular disorder. One such biomarker present in the oral cavity is salivary lysozyme which plays a significant role in the defense mechanism of our body. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the levels of salivary lysozyme before and after removable prosthetic treatment in partially edentulous patients. Materials and methods: A total of 40 subjects were enrolled for the study who had reported to the Department of Prosthodontics for a removable partial denture (RPD) of their partial edentulism. A simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) was recorded for each subject. The saliva samples were collected at different time intervals, that is, baseline before the removable prosthodontic treatment and 3 months after treatment. This was followed by a comparative analysis of changes in the levels of salivary lysozyme using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Categorical variables (like gender) were summarized as frequencies, while continuous variables were summarized as mean and standard deviation. Parametric tests of significance (paired t-test) were used for inferential statistics. Continuous data were tested by means of the Shapiro–Wilk test. Results: The mean value for the OHI-S before removable prosthodontic treatment was 2.41; however, after insertion of the RPD, the value was 3.04 suggesting a significant increase of 0.6225 (p < 0.001). The levels of salivary lysozyme increased essentially in patients after wearing an RPD for 3 months. The initial values were 11.27 ± 0.37, which elevated to 13.10 ± 0.39 in a span of 3 months. Conclusion: The inference of this study advocated that the salivary lysozyme levels may be of significance for the determination of susceptibility to the disease, its progression, or regression pre- and posttreatment following initial colonization of bacteria after the RPD insertion.



Vaishnavi Banode, Saee Deshpande

Color Stability of Provisional Restorative Materials after Exposure to Commonly consumed Beverages: A Systematic Review

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:138 - 144]

Keywords: Acrylic resin, Color stability, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Provisional restorative material

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1374  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to find the effects of commonly consumed beverages on the color stability of provisional restorative materials. Materials and methods: An electronic search in the PubMed/MEDLINE database was used to find relevant papers that had been written in English exclusively and published before November 2021. Based on the population, intervention, control, and outcomes (PICO), the primary research question for this study was “is there any difference in the color stability of provisional restorative materials after exposure to commonly consumed beverages?” By evaluating the title, abstract, and full-text of the articles, if they met the inclusion criteria, the relevance of the articles was verified. The risk of bias was assessed using specific study design-related bias assessment forms. Result: The database search yielded 1,198 items, of which 1,188 were discarded due to being irrelevant, duplicates, or lacking data. The remaining 10 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Eight articles were yielded by manual search and five articles were added through the search of reference list of relevant articles. A total of 23 full-text papers were evaluated for eligibility, with one article being excluded. The current systematic review includes a total of 22 studies. Conclusion: The findings from this systematic review indicate that although the color stability of provisional restorative materials has been the subject of several investigations, there is a lot of heterogeneity in the data. Regarding different beverages, coffee caused the most noticeable color changes in the materials tested. Regarding color stability, heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) showed better performance than chemically-cured PMMA followed by bis-acryl resin. The decrease in color stability of the temporary materials was significantly influenced by increasing the immersion period of the test specimens.



Walaa Magdy Ahmed, Rabea Abid Althagafi

Smile Makeover Utilizing Digital Esthetic Veneers Workflow: A Case Report

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:145 - 148]

Keywords: Guided tooth preparation, Three-dimensional digital smile design, 3D printing, Virtual mock-up

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1366  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


This case report describes an innovative approach to creating a smile makeover using a fully digital workflow. An intraoral scan was integrated into the patient's frontal smile using digital software to create a three-dimensional (3D) digital smile design and virtual mock-up, guided by universal esthetic analysis principles. The virtual mock-up was 3D printed to fabricate an index for the clinical mock-up. The clinical mock-up was applied using acrylic materials to translate the virtual mock-up clinically and obtain patient consent. Esthetic analyses were performed to obtain optimum esthetic, functional, and occlusal stabilities. Guided to veneer preparations were performed. Retraction cords were placed, and an intraoral scan was performed for the #15 and #25 veneers. The margin was defined digitally, and the stereolithography (STL) files were then transferred digitally to the laboratory technician for veneer fabrication. Provisional veneers were cemented using the spot-etch technique. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate veneers were bonded to the prepared teeth. Esthetic function and occlusion remained stable at the 1-year follow-up visit. The use of digital workflow in managing esthetic cases enhanced the treatment predictability and increased the survival and success of the restorations due to the conservation of tooth structure.



Kumari Deepika, Kriti Bansal, Anandmayee Chaturvedi, Rekha Gupta

Hollowing of Delayed Surgical Obturator in Maxillectomy Defects Secondary to Mucormycosis in Post-COVID-19 Era: A Case Series

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:149 - 154]

Keywords: Delayed surgical obturator, Hollow bulb obturator, Maxillectomy defect, Mucormycosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1373  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


During the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in India, there was an increase in the surge of mucormycosis cases secondary to COVID-19 infection. Aggressive surgical debridement is the most common treatment modality opted for its treatment that leads to extended maxillary defects. Obturating such defects may be very challenging from a prosthodontic point of view, as larger defect sizes and fewer retentive areas make it difficult to retain the prosthesis. A delayed surgical obturator is a prosthesis that is placed 6–10 days after the surgery, mainly used to minimize postoperative complications. It reproduces the contour of the palate and allows the patient to resume a regular diet. It also assists in normal speech. But in large surgical defects, the increased obturator's weight makes it uncomfortable and nonretentive for the patient, compromising its function. Consequently, in this case series, hollow bulb obturators are fabricated to decrease the weight of the prosthesis and to improve the function by establishing palatal contour. In case 1, hollowing was done using thermoplastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets and in case 2 acrylic shim was used. In both cases two-layer techniques were used, as in large defects if we use a single-layer technique it will either increase the weight of the prosthesis or may fail to create a palatal contour that further compromises the function. The techniques followed here are easy to use and less time-consuming.



Maria CPF Volpato, Girliane M Costa, Lorraynne dos S Lara, Luiz ER Volpato

Maxillofacial and Oral Rehabilitation of an Oncologic Patient: Case Report

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:12] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:155 - 157]

Keywords: Maxillofacial prosthesis, Mouth Rehabilitation, Palatal Obturators, Quality of life, Squamous cell neoplasms

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1383  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Oral and maxillofacial prostheses are the treatment option to improve the function and psychology of patients with loss of oral and facial structures. This case report describes the rehabilitation of a 59-year-old patient who had undergone hemimaxillectomy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma with maxillofacial and dental prostheses. The patient presented with a loss of structures in the middle third of the face, including part of the nasal appendage. The patient was rehabilitated with a palatal obturator, a complete mandibular denture, and a facial prosthesis. The prosthetic rehabilitation improved the oral functions, psychological well-being and social reintegration of the patient.


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