International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry

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2021 | October-December | Volume 11 | Issue 4

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Current Evidence on the Efficacy of Denture Adhesives in Complete Denture Wearers

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:157 - 157]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1339  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



How Accurate are Intraoral Radiographs for Measuring Peri-implant Crestal Bone Loss?

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:158 - 158]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1348  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Arife Dogan, Mustafa Solmazgul

Evaluation of the Effect of Cement Shade and Accelerated Artificial Aging on Color Stability of CAD/CAM Resin-matrix Ceramics: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:159 - 167]

Keywords: Artificial aging, CAD/CAM resin-matrix ceramics, Color stability, Resin cement

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1345  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of cementation and artificial aging on color stability of three resin-matrix ceramic CAD/CAM materials. Materials and methods: About 12 × 14 × 1.0 mm rectangular-shaped specimens were prepared from a hybrid ceramic (Vita Enamic), a hybrid resin nano-ceramic (Cerasmart), and a resin nano-ceramic (Lava Ultimate) (n = 30). Specimens of each material were luted with three shades of a resin cement in 0.2 mm thickness (Variolink N; A1, Bleach XL and Transparent), followed by artificial aging step (n = 10). Color coordinates were measured in each step with a colorimeter. Color differences (ΔE00) were calculated from CIEDE2000 formula, and statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. Results: For each material type, Bleach XL shade luting yielded the highest color change when compared to other two shades (p < 0.05). Artificially aging the specimens resulted in a significant increase in ΔE00 regardless of shade and material type (p < 0.05). No significant color differences due to artificial aging were detected when the three shades were compared for only Vita Enamic samples (p > 0.05). Luting with different shades of resin cement did not result in a statistical difference in ΔE00 between the restorative materials (p < 0.05) except for Cerasmart luted with Bleach XL (p < 0.05); however, artificial aging led to statistically significant differences between the materials when luted with the same shade of the resin cement (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The final color of resin-matrix ceramics is affected by the resin cement shade and artificial aging.



Suneetha Rao, Harvinder Singh, K Ashok, MU Swetha, Shruti Mishra Sarkar, S Jyothi

Stresses Generated in Completely Edentulous and Partially Edentulous Arch Rehabilitated with Four Implants: A Comparative 3D FEA Study

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:168 - 172]

Keywords: All on four concept, Angulated implant, Finite element analysis, Straight dental implant

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1347  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: The present study is based on a thesis submitted to the Dentistryimplants in anterior region and tilted implants in the posterior region with angulation of 30 degrees. To evaluate the stresses generated on bone, implants and superstructures in partially edentulous model (Kennedy class 1) using anterior straight implants and posterior tilted implants with angulation of 30 degrees. Materials and methods: In the present study two maxillary FE (finite element) models were fabricated using CT scans. One model represented completely edentulous situation and other one represented partially edentulous Kennedy class 1 situation. Both the models had anterior straight implants and posterior tilted implants of 30 degrees angulation. These models were subjected to axial loading of 200N forces and the numerical values of the stresses generated were calculated. Results: The stresses generated in the complete denture model (M1) was 118 MPa and in the partial model (M2) was 60.95 MPa. The stresses on M1 was 21.4 MPa and in M2 it was 18.4MP at the cortical bone. Conclusion: Overall stresses generated on the completely edentulous models were found to be more than the stresses generated on the partially edentulous models. Therefore, it is better to retain remaining natural teeth and give a fixed partial denture supported by an anterior straight implant and posterior tilted implant than extracting and giving implant supported complete denture.



Shivanand Aspalli, S Gomathi Sai Krishna, Reetika Gaddale, Susan Abraham, Prerana Mahapatra, VR Monisha

A Trichotomous Relation between Papilla Proportion, Gingival Zenith, and Facial Profile

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:173 - 177]

Keywords: Facial profile, Gingival zenith, Papilla height, Papilla proportion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1343  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: Gingival morphology, that is, the contour, thickness, height of the papilla, proportion of the papilla, plays a vital role in smile designing and esthetics. These anatomical landmarks may vary based on race, gender, and ethnicity, so understanding, evaluating, and correcting these variations is the utmost important aspect when planning for smile designing as well as in anterior teeth rehabilitation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate papilla height and papilla proportion as a useful parameter for treatment planning in different facial profile subjects (concave, convex, straight). Materials and methods: Diagnostic casts were made using alginate impressions for 32 periodontally healthy subjects including males and females (age range 18–50 years) having sound anterior teeth. Gingival zenith was marked by using the method described by Chu and Stappert. Papilla height was measured and papilla proportion was calculated by the mathematical equation given by Chu and Stappert. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Papilla height and papilla proportion were higher in concave profile subjects when compared to convex as well as straight profile subjects. The mean papilla proportion of right central incisor among various facial profiles (convex, straight, and concave) was 34.93% ± 5.40, 34.64% ± 7.38, and 37.58 ± 8.27, respectively and for the left central incisor were 34.74% ± 5.56, 34.05 ± 7.59, and 37.21 ± 8.37, respectively. Conclusion: Facial, dentogingival, dentofacial, and dental are the factors involved in the esthetic analysis. Multidisciplinary approaches are often required to increase the treatment predictability.



Vatsal Chauhan, Anjali Sharma, Pankaj Mishra, Santosh Singh, Anu Narang

A Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Strength of Natural Tooth Pontic Reinforced with Polyethylene-fiber Post vs Glass-fiber Post: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:178 - 182]

Keywords: Interlig reinforcement fiber, Natural tooth pontic, Ribbond fiber, Splint material

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1346  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the fracture strength of natural tooth pontic reinforced with polyethylene-fiber post vs glass-fiber post. One of the most conservative solutions for the replacement of missing anterior tooth can be using patient's own tooth as a pontic. As no laboratory procedures are required, it is well suited for patients who need an immediate replacement of tooth in esthetic zone. Materials and methods: Twenty polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin blocks were prepared. Two abutment teeth were embedded in each PMMA resin block. Twenty central incisors were sectioned at the level of cementoenamel junction using a diamond-cutting disk with water coolant and used as pontics. The samples were divided into two groups at random; group A—polyethylene (Ribbond) fiber post (n = 10) used to strengthen pontics and group B—glass (Interlig) reinforcement fiber post (n = 10) used to strengthen the pontics. The fracture strength of the samples was tested in universal testing machine. Student's t-test was done for statistical analysis to find the difference between two groups. Results: The mean fracture strength of polyethylene (Ribbond) fiber post was 56.7 ± 13.0 MPa and glass (Interlig) reinforcement fiber post was 38.56 ± 8.68 MPa. A significant difference was observed between mean fracture strength of polyethylene (Ribbond) fiber post and glass (Interlig) reinforcement fiber post (p-value = 0.002). Conclusion: Both the fiber reinforced splint materials are effective in stabilizing the natural tooth pontic. Ribbond fiber, a polyethylene fiber post, had better fracture strength than Interlig glass fiber post and can be used effectively for stabilization of the natural tooth pontic.



Vincent Bennani, Y-S Chuang, John M Aarts, Paul Brunton

Evaluation of Effectiveness and Adverse Effects of Retraction Cord vs Retraction Paste: A Systematic Review

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:183 - 190]

Keywords: Cord, Displacement, Gingival, Paste, Retraction

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1344  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The practitioner's assumptions with regards to the ideal gingival retraction technique are not well supported in the literature and contradictions still exist. Therefore, the objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness and adverse effects, of using a retraction cord compared with a retraction paste. Materials and methods: The “Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols” (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines were followed. Studies, published between 2010 and 2020, involving retraction cords and retraction pastes were searched for in multiple databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and the studies were evaluated using the GRADE system. The studies were analyzed and the quantity of gingival retraction and periodontal health are reported. Results: Of the selected 10 studies, nine were randomized, and one was quasi-randomized. Five studies compared the horizontal displacement of retraction cords and retraction pastes. Eight studies described the influence of retraction materials on periodontal health. Seven studies recorded Bleeding Index (BI) scores, with five studies finding higher BI value following removal of retraction cords. According to the GRADE scoring system, the quality of research was ranked from +1 to +3 with the majority of the studies being in the +2 range. Conclusion: Astringents used with retraction cords can achieve wider and longer gingival displacement. Retraction pastes can avoid disrupting the junctional epithelium attachment and damaging the supracrestal tissue height, and produce less gingival inflammation due to the lower application forces.



Nachammai Nagarajan, Bappaditya Bhattacharjee, Atul Bhatnagar

Effect of Two Different Impression Techniques on Masticatory Performance of Complete Denture Wearers: A Systematic Review

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:191 - 197]

Keywords: Complete denture, Masticatory performance, Simplified impression

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1336  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of the masticatory performance of the complete dentures. The objective of this review was to evaluate scientific evidence of the impact of simplified impression technique versus conventional impression technique on masticatory performance of complete denture wearers. Materials and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library) were searched until 30th October 2020, without any publication year limit. Manual search of the references cited in the included studies and gray literature were also included. Randomized clinical trials that assessed objectively the masticatory performance between complete dentures fabricated from two different impression techniques were included. Results: A total of 398 studies were obtained through search in 3 electronic databases (PubMed- 229, Web of Science- 155, and Cochrane library- 14). Qualities of randomized controlled clinical trials were assessed by Cochrane's tool for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Heterogeneity of data and measurement methods between the studies limited the scope of their meta-analysis. Nine studies remained after the removal of duplicates and screening of titles and abstracts. Applying eligibility criteria remainder three randomized controlled clinical trials were included after removing six studies. Conclusion: No significant difference was found objectively in masticatory performance of individuals wearing complete dentures fabricated either by simplified impression technique or conventional impression technique.



Karishma Jagadeesh, Ravishankar Krishna, Chinmaya Bhandary, Prasanna Vadhani

Single-step Border Moulding Using Putty Polyvinyl Siloxane and Auto-mix Dispensing Gun: An Alternate Technique

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:198 - 201]

Keywords: Clinical technique, Dental impression dispensing gun system, Poly vinylsiloxane, Putty poly vinylsiloxane, Single-step border moulding

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1337  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: The putty viscosity of PVS material offers several advantages for single-step border moulding. However, a common problem is the thick overextended borders related to its viscosity and also due to the application of uneven thickness of putty material on the tray borders, which is commonly associated with the hand-roll application technique. Aim and objective: To propose a reliable technique for applying even thickness of putty polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression material in one go and at a lower viscosity for single-step border moulding using a modified dental impression dispensing gun system. Technique: One of the outlets of an empty PVS impression cartridge is modified to a diameter of 4 mm. A homogenous mix of putty PVS is loaded into the modified cartridge and the gun is activated. On activation, a uniform thickness of putty can be dispensed onto the custom tray borders to carry out single-step border moulding. The viscosity of such dispensed material is also low due to the shear-thinning phenomenon. Conclusion: A simple alternate technique of single-step border moulding using putty PVS and a modified dental impression dispensing gun system has been described. The technique is reliable, based on commonly used equipment, and also cost-effective.



Sheen S Mehta, Dushyant Soni, Swathi K Sharma, Tondon D Athokpam

Implant-supported Collapsible Overdenture for Scleroderma Patients

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:202 - 205]

Keywords: Complete denture, Dental implants, Denture base, Esthetics, Impression techniques, Mandibular overdenture

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1335  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Tightening of the skin around the oral aperture causes the mouth opening to become limited in scleroderma patients. The limited oral opening can make prosthetic treatment challenging. A lady patient, 28 years of age, reported with a complaint of pain in relation to upper teeth and difficulty in chewing food. She gave a history of being diagnosed with scleroderma 3 years back and desired a suitable prosthesis for restoring her function and esthetics. This clinical paper presents the prosthodontic management of a highly resorbed edentulous mandible of a patient with restricted mouth opening by an implant-supported collapsible overdenture.



Natalie Powell

Rehabilitation of a Patient with Limited Opening with a Two-piece Magnetically Retained Obturator: A Case Report

[Year:2021] [Month:October-December] [Volume:11] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:206 - 208]

Keywords: Case report, Limited interincisal opening, Magnet, Maxillofacial defects, Sectional obturator

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1338  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Maxillofacial defects can occur secondarily due to trauma leaving an oro-antral communication with speech issues. Surgical reconstruction of the area is not always feasible and therefore a prosthesis may be required to restore speech and function. Surgical attempts at reconstruction may create a limited interincisal opening, which in turn makes the fabrication of a prosthesis a significant challenge. This case report is presented to describe the fabrication of a sectional obturator prosthesis to restore speech, function, and lip support in a patient with limited mouth opening. To provide a stable obturator prosthesis, the prosthesis had to be fabricated in two separate parts then attached intraorally with magnets (Steco Titanmagnets).


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