International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2018 ) > List of Articles

CASE REPORT

Nonvital Bleaching: A Case Series on whitening Procedure for Discolored Endodontically Treated Teeth

Manish Agarwal, Anu Narang, Shilpi Awadhiya, Mahendra Jain

Keywords : Carbamide peroxide, Discoloration, Intracoronal bleaching, Nonvital tooth, Tooth bleaching, Walking bleach method

Citation Information : Agarwal M, Narang A, Awadhiya S, Jain M. Nonvital Bleaching: A Case Series on whitening Procedure for Discolored Endodontically Treated Teeth. Int J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2018; 8 (1):28-31.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1198

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-03-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Discoloration of tooth can be extrinsic or intrinsic based on its etiology, site, appearance, and severity. It poses esthetic problem which could be a prime concern for many patients, especially in anterior region of teeth that may be compromised due to previous trauma, caries, or failed restorations. Bleaching is a more conservative approach which is noninvasive as compared with other prosthodontic options like crowns or veneers. Among various bleaching techniques, “Walking bleach technique” is preferred, as it provides better cosmetic outcome with limited side effects. However, some modifications of it were also introduced. This article aims at presenting a case series on walking bleach method performed on endodontically treated teeth showing good prognosis and superior esthetic results (with no reversal of tooth discoloration).


PDF Share
  1. Ingle, JI.; Beveridge, EE. Endodontics. 2nd edition. Philadelphia (PA): Lea and Febiger; 1976.
  2. Cohen, SC.; Bums, RC. Pathways of the pulp. St. Louis (MO): C.V. Mosby; 1980.
  3. MacIsaac AM, Hoen CM. Intracoronal bleaching: concerns and considerations. J Can Dent Assoc 1994 Jan;60(1):57-64.
  4. Rostein, I. Tooth discoloration and bleaching. In: Ingle JI, Bakland LK, editors. Endodontics. 5th ed. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc.; 2002. pp. 845-860.
  5. Ambalia SV, Ramgadhia HS. Nonvital tooth bleaching, noninvasive technique: a case report. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2017 Mar;16(3):80-82
  6. Nathoo SA. The chemistry and mechanism of extrinsic and intrinsic discoloration. J Am Dent Assoc 1997 Apr;128(Suppl):6S-10S.
  7. Fasanaro TS. Bleaching teeth: history, chemicals and methods used for common tooth discolorations. J Esthet Dent 1992 May-Jun;4(3):71-78.
  8. Goldstein RE. In-office bleaching: where we came from, where we are today. J Am Dent Assoc 1997 Apr;128(Suppl): 11S-15S.
  9. Singh AK, Singh AK. Walking bleach: a case report. IJOCR 2013 Oct-Dec;1(2):55-58.
  10. Rotstein I, Mor C, Friedmann S: Prognosis of intracoronal bleaching with sodium perborate preparations in vitro: 1-year study. J Endod 1993 Jan;19(1):10-12.
  11. Spasser HF. A simple bleaching technique using sodium perborate. N Y State Dent J 1961 Aug;27(8-9):332-334.
  12. Nutting EB, Poe GS. Chemical bleaching of discolored endodontically treated teeth. Dent Clin North Am 1967 Nov;11:655-622.
  13. Zimmerli B, Jeger F, Lussi A Bleaching of non vital teeth. A clinically relevant literature review. Schweiz Monnatsschr Zahnmed 2010 Jan;120(4):306-320.
  14. Yui KC, Rodrigues JR, Mancini MN, Balducci I, Gonçalves SE. Ex vivo evaluation of the effectiveness of bleaching agents on the shade alteration of blood-stained teeth. Int Endod J 2008 Jun;41(6):485-492.
  15. Goldstein GR, Kiremidjian-Schumacher L. Bleaching: is it safe and effective? J Prosthet Dent 1993 Mar;69(3):325-328.
  16. Almohareb T. Management of discoloured endodontically treated tooth using sodium perborate. J Int Oral Health 2017 Jun;9(3):133-135.
  17. von Metzler I, Krebbel H, Kuckelkorn U, Heider U, Jakob C, Kaiser M, Fleissner C, Terpos E, Sezer O. Curcumin diminishes human osteoclastogenesis by inhibition of the signalsome-associated IƒÈB kinase. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2009 Feb;135(2):173-179.
  18. Charyeva O, Dakischew O, Sommer U, Heiss C, Schnettler R, Lips KS. Biocompatibility of magnesium implants in primary human reaming debris-derived cells stem cells in vitro. J Orthopaed Traumatol 2016 Mar;17(1):63-73.
  19. NDORMS. EQUATOR network identification of reporting guidelines (Search strategy for MEDLINE database). Oxford: NDORMS; 2017. [cited 2017 Dec 13]. Available from: www. equator-network.org/resource-centre/.
  20. Albrektsson T, Albrektsson B. Osseointegration of bone implants: a review of an alternative mode of fixation. Acta Orthop Scand 1987 Oct;58(5):567-577.
  21. Buser D, Broggini N, Wieland M, Schenk RK, Denzer AJ, Cochran DL, Hoffmann B, Lussi A, Steinemann SG. Enhanced bone apposition to a chemically modified SLA titanium surface. J Dent Res 2004 Jul;83(7):529-533.
  22. Smeets R, Stadlinger B, Schwarz F, Beck-Broichsitter B, Jung O, Precht C, Kloss F, Grobe A, Heiland M, Ebker T. Impact of dental implant surface modifications on osseointegration. Bio Med Res Int 2016 Jun;2016:6285620.
  23. Zhao G, Schwartz Z, Wieland M, Rupp F, Geis Gerstorfer J, Cochran DL, Boyan BD. High surface energy enhances cell response to titanium substrate microstructure. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2005 Jul;74(1):49-58.
  24. Schwarz F, Wieland M, Schwartz Z, Zhao G, Rupp F, Geis Gerstorfer J, Schedle A, Broggini N, Bornstein MM, Buser D, et al. Potential of chemically modified hydrophilic surface characteristics to support tissue integration of titanium dental implants. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2009 Feb;88(2):544-557.
  25. Milleret V, Tugulu S, Schlottig F, Hall H. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation. Eur Cell Mater 2011 May;21:430-444.
  26. Hong J, Kurt S, Thor A. A hydrophilic dental implant surface exhibit thrombogenic properties in vitro. Clin Implants Dent Relat Res 2013 Feb;15(1):105-112.
  27. Wall I, Donos N, Carlqvist K, Jones F, Brett P. Modified titanium surfaces promote accelerated osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. Bone 2009 Jul;45(1): 17-26.
  28. Hamlet S, Alfarsi M, George R, Ivanovski S. The effect of hydrophilic titanium surface modification on macrophage inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012 May;23(5):584-590.
  29. Fischer J, Prosenc MH, Wolff M, Hort N, Willumeit R, Feyerabend F. Interference of magnesium corrosion with tetrazolium-based cytotoxicity assays. Acta Biomater 2010 May;6(5):1813-1823.
  30. Chan WH, Wu HY, Chang WH. Dosage effects of curcumin on cell death types in a human osteoblast cell line. Food Chem Toxicol 2006 Aug;44(8):1362-1371.
  31. Notoya M, Tsukamoto Y, Nishimura H, Woo JT, Nagai K, Lee IS, Hagiwara H. Quercetin, a flavonoid, inhibits the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 2004 Feb;485(1-3):89-96.
  32. Chen HW, Huang HC. Effect of curcumin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in vascular, smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol 1998 Jul;124(6):1029-1040.
  33. Zheng X, Cheng M, Xiang L, Liang J, Xie L, Zhang R. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization. Sci Rep 2015 Sep;5:14408.
  34. McCabe LR, Kockx M, Lian J, Stein J, Stein G. Selective expression of fos- and jun-related genes during osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Exp Cell Res 1995 May;218(1): 255-262.
  35. Huang W, Yang S, Shao J, Li Y. Signaling and transcriptional regulation in osteoblast commitment and differentiation. Front Biosci 2007 May;12:3068-3092.
  36. Javed A, Chen H, Ghori FY. Genetic and transcriptional control of bone formation. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2010 Aug;22(3):283-293.
  37. Park MJ, Kim EH, Park IC, Lee HC, Woo SH, Lee JY, Hong YJ, Rhee CH, Choi SH, Shim BS, et al. Curcumin inhibits cell cycle progression of immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial (ECV304) cells by up-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1/CIP1, p27KIP1 and p53. Int J Oncol 2002 Aug;21(2):379-383.
  38. Zheng M, Ekmekcioglu S, Walch ET, Tang CH, Grimm EA. Inhibition of NF-êB and nitric oxide by curcumin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Melanoma Res 2004 Jun;14(3):165-171.
  39. Bellosta, P, Masramon L, Mansukhani A, Basilico C. p21(WAF1/CIP1) acts as a brake in osteoblast differentiation. J Bone Miner Res 2003 May;18(5):818-826.
  40. Deng C, Zhang P, Haeper JW, Elledge SJ, Leder P. Mice lacking p21CIP1/WAF1 undergo normal development, but are defective in G1 checkpoint control. Cell 1995 Aug;82(4):675-684.
  41. Davis BJ, Xie Z, Viollet B, Zou MH. Activation of the AMPactivated kinase by antidiabetes drug metformin stimulates nitric oxide synthesis in vivo by promoting the association of heat shock protein 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Diabetes 2006 Feb;55(2):496-505.
  42. Triggle CR, Ding H. Cardiovascular impact of drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2014 Nov;5(6):245-268.
  43. Tousoulis D, Kampoli AM, Stefanadis C. Diabetes mellitus and vascular endothelial dysfunction: current perspectives. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2012 Jan;10(1):19-32.
  44. Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Watts GF. Therapeutic regulation of endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2007 Jun;4(2):89-102.
  45. De Vriese AS, Verbeuren TJ, Van de Voorde J, Lameire NH, Vanhoutte PM. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Br J Pharmacol 2000 Jul;130(5):963-974.
  46. Shanik MH, Xu Y, Skrha J, Dankner R, Zick Y, Roth J. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia: Is hyperinsulinemia the cart of the horse? Diabetes Care 2008 Feb;31(Suppl 2):S262-S268.
  47. Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 2006 Dec;444(7121):840-846.
  48. Cao W, Liu HY, Tao H, Liu Z. Excess exposure of insulin may be the primary cause of insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2010 Feb;298(2):E372.
  49. Onyeaso CO, Sanu OO. Perception of personal dental appearance in Nigeria adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2005 Jun;127(6):700-706.
  50. Onyeaso CO. Orthodontic concern of parents compared with orthodontic treatment need assessed by Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) in Ibaden, Nigeria. Odontostomatol Trop 2003 Mar;26(101):13-20.
  51. Naveen Kumar B, Mohapatra A, Ramesh N, Ravishankar TL. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 12-15 years old school children in Davangere, Karnataka, India. Pak Oral Dent J 2010;30(1):181-185.
  52. de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A. The relationship between normative orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003 Dec;31(6):426-436.
  53. de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A, Tsakos G, O'Brien KD. Oral health related quality of life and the IOTN index as predictors of children's perceived needs and acceptance for orthodontic treatment. Br Dent J 2008 Apr;204(7):1-5.
  54. Al-Sarheed M, Bedi R, Hunt NP. Orthodontic treatment need and self perception of 11-16 year old Saudi Arabian children with a sensory impairment attending special schools. J Orthod 2003 Mar;30(1):39-44.
  55. Kerosuo H, Al Enezi S, Kerosuo E, Abdulkarim E. Association between normative and self perceived orthodontic treatment need among Arab high school students. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Mar;125(3):373-378.
  56. Ghijselings I, Brosens V, Williams G, Fieuws S, Clijmans M, Lemiere J. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in 11- to 16-year-old children. Eur J Orthod 2014 Apr;36(2):179-185.
  57. Onyeaso CO, Arowojolu MO. Perceived, desired and normatively determined treatment need among orthodontically untreated Nigerian adolescents. West Afr J Med 2003 Jan- Mar;22(1):5-9.
  58. Jung MH. Quality of life and self-esteem of female orthognathic surgery patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Jun;74(6):1240.e1-1240.e7.
  59. Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
  60. Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
  61. Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
  62. Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
  63. Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
  64. Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
  65. Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
  66. Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
  67. Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
  68. Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
  69. Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
  70. Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
  71. Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
  72. Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
  73. Singh SP. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the unfolding monster? J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006 Jan;21(1 Pt 2):199-201.
  74. Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
  75. Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
  76. Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
  77. Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
  78. Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
  79. Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
  80. Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
  81. Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
  82. Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
  83. Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
  84. Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
  85. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
  86. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
  87. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
  88. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
  89. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
  90. Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
  91. Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
  92. Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
  93. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
  94. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
  95. Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
  96. Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
  97. Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
  98. Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
  99. Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
  100. Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
  101. Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
  102. Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
  103. Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
  104. Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
  105. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  106. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
  107. Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
  108. Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
  109. Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
  110. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
  111. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
  112. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
  113. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
  114. Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
  115. Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
  116. Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
  117. Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
  118. Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
  119. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
  120. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
  121. Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
  122. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
  123. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
  124. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
  125. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
  126. Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
  127. Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
  128. Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
  129. O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
  130. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
  131. Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
  132. Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
  133. Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.