International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of the Strain under Compression and Surface Roughness of Tissue Conditioners Incorporated with Silver Nano Particles and Chlorhexidine: An In Vitro Study

Pooja M Raikar, Sapna Chengappa Kambiranda, Nitesh Shetty

Keywords : Chlorhexidine, Silver nanoparticles, Strain under compression, Surface roughness, Tissue conditioner

Citation Information : Raikar PM, Kambiranda SC, Shetty N. Evaluation of the Strain under Compression and Surface Roughness of Tissue Conditioners Incorporated with Silver Nano Particles and Chlorhexidine: An In Vitro Study. Int J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2023; 13 (4):228-234.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10019-1429

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-12-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Purpose: To evaluate and compare the strain under compression and surface roughness of tissue conditioner after incorporation of silver nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. Materials and methods: A total of 321 specimens were prepared following American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19 (n = 21 disk-shaped specimens; n = 300 cylindrical specimens). The specimens were divided into three groups: group I as control (tissue conditioner without any additives), group II (tissue conditioner with 0.1% silver nanoparticles), and group III (tissue conditioner with 2% chlorhexidine). Cylindrical specimens (n = 100 per group) were used for strain under compression, and disk-shaped specimens (n = 7 per group) for surface roughness. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal–Wallis tests along with Dunn's post hoc test. Results: The mean strain percent of the silver nanoparticles incorporated group was 0.45, the control group was 0.35, and the chlorhexidine-incorporated group was 0.46. The strain was less in the control group compared to the other two groups, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.016). The mean strain percent of all three groups increased linearly as the load increased. The difference in the distribution of strain percent of the three-tissue conditioner group with an increase in load was significant in each group (p < 0.001). The mean surface roughness of the silver nanoparticles incorporated group was 4.12 μm, followed by the chlorhexidine incorporated group (4.47 μm) and control group (4.58 μm). There was no significant difference in the surface roughness between the three tissue conditioner groups (p = 0953). Conclusion: The incorporation of 0.1% silver nanoparticles into tissue conditioner showed decreased strain under compression and less surface roughness when compared with the control group. The incorporation of 2% chlorhexidine into tissue conditioner showed increased strain under compression and decreased surface roughness when compared with the control group. In patients with denture stomatitis, tissue conditioner comprising 0.1% silver nanoparticles can be used as a beneficial and promising antimicrobial agent without altering the mechanical and physical properties.

  1. Homsiang W, Kamonkhantikul K, Arksornnukit M, et al. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporated into tissue conditioner on antifungal, physical, and mechanical properties. Dent Mater J 2021;40(2):481–486. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2020-095
  2. Bolenwar A, Reche A, Dhamdhere N, et al. Applications of silver nanoparticles in dentistry. Cureus 2023;15(8):e44090. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.44090
  3. Yin IX, Zhang J, Zhao IS, et al. The antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles and its application in dentistry. Int J Nanomedicine 2020;15:2555–2562. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S246764
  4. Shukla S, Dable RA, Rao RS, et al. Invitro antibacterial activity of temporary soft liner combined with chlorexidiene, silver nano particles and tea tree oil against Staphylococcus aureus. TMU J Dent 2017;4:42–45.
  5. Catalán A, Pacheco JG, Martínez A, et al. In vitro and in vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia mixed with tissue conditioner on Candida albicans. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;105(3):327–332. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.08.025
  6. Krishnamoorthy G, Narayana AI, Peralam PY, et al. To study the effect of Cocos nucifera oil when incorporated into tissue conditioner on its tensile strength and antifungal activity: an in vitro study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2019;19(3):225–232. DOI: 10.4103/jips.jips_387_18
  7. Dorocka-Bobkowska B, Medyński D, Pryliński M. Recent advances in tissue conditioners for prosthetic treatment: a review. Adv Clin Exp Med 2017;26(4):723–728. DOI: 10.17219/acem/62634
  8. Malmström HS, Mehta N, Sanchez R, et al. The effect of two different coatings on the surface integrity and softness of a tissue conditioner. J Prosthet Dent 2002;87(7):153–157. DOI: 10.1067/mpr.2002.121407
  9. Prasad A, Prasad BR, Shetty V, et al. Tissue conditioners: a review. J Health Allied Sci 2014;4(2):152–157. DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1703789
  10. Zhang XF, Liu ZG, Shen W, et al. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, properties, applications, and therapeutic approaches. Int J Mol Sci 2016;17(9):1534. DOI: 10.3390/ijms17091534
  11. Pai E, Nayak A, Hallikerimath RB, et al. Comparison of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles for flexural strength once incorporated in heat-cure acrylic denture base resin: an in vitro study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2023;23(2):127–134. DOI: 10.4103/jips.jips_354_22
  12. Tonprasong W, Inokoshi M, Tamura M, et al. Tissue conditioner incorporating a nano-sized surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) Filler. Materials (Basel) 2021;14(21):6648. DOI: 10.3390/ma14216648
  13. Russell AD. Chlorhexidine: antibacterial action and bacterial resistance. Infection 1986;14(5):212–215. DOI: 10.1007/BF01644264
  14. McCarthy JA, Moser JB. Tissue conditioners as functional impression materials. J Oral Rehabil 1978;5(4):357–364. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.1978.tb01254.x
  15. Shylesh KB, Hallikerimath RB, Rajeev VV, et al. Evaluation of physical properties of tissue conditioning materials as used in functional impression - a lab study. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(3):20–27. PMID: 24155598.
  16. Shala K, Tmava-Dragusha A, Dula L, et al. Evaluation of maximum bite force in patients with complete dentures. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018;6(3):559–563. DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.141
  17. Srivastava A, Ginjupalli K, Perampalli NU, et al. Evaluation of the properties of a tissue conditioner containing origanum oil as an antifungal additive. J Prosthet Dent 2013;110(4):313–319. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3913(13)60381-9
  18. Revised American Dental Association specification no. 19 for non-aqueous, elastomeric dental impression materials. J Am Dent Assoc 1977;94(4):733–741. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1977.0334
  19. Bueno MG, Sousa EJB, Hotta J, et al. Surface properties of temporary soft liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungals. Braz Dent J 2017;28(2):158–164. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201701266
  20. Rawat P, Agarwal S, Tripathi S. Effect of addition of antifungal agents on physical and biological properties of a tissue conditioner: an in-vitro study. Adv Pharm Bull 2017;7(3):485–490. DOI: 10.15171/apb.2017.059
  21. Iqbal Z, Zafar MS. Role of antifungal medicaments added to tissue conditioners: a systematic review. J Prosthodont Res 2016;60(4):231–239. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpor.2016.03.006
  22. Nam KY. In vitro antimicrobial effect of the tissue conditioner containing silver nanoparticles. J Adv Prosthodont 2011;3(1):20–24. DOI: 10.4047/jap.2011.3.1.20
  23. Neppelenbroek KH, Lima JFM, Hotta J, et al. Effect of incorporation of antifungal agents on the ultimate tensile strength of temporary soft denture liners. J Prosthodont 2018;27(2):177–181. DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12660
  24. Douglas WH, Clarke DA. Physical and mechanical properties of nystatin-containing denture liners. J Prosthet Dent 1975;34(4):428–434. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(75)90161-4
  25. Kreve S, Oliveira VC, Bachmann L, et al. Influence of AgVO3 incorporation on antimicrobial properties, hardness, roughness and adhesion of a soft denture liner. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):11889. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-48228-8
  26. Machado AL, Giampaolo ET, Pavarina AC, et al. Surface roughness of denture base and reline materials after disinfection by immersion in chlorhexidine or microwave irradiation. Gerodontology 2012;29(2):e375–e382. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00484.x
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.